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BMW 501

The BMW 501 was a luxury vehicle manufactured by BMW from 1952 to 1958. Introduced at the first Frankfurt motor show in 1951, the model 501 was the first BMW model to be manufactured and sold after the Second World War, and as the first BMW car was built in Bavaria. In the 501 and its derivatives, in particular the V8 powered BMW 502, were nicknamed Angels Baroque” German public. The BMW 502 was the first postwar German car to be manufactured with a V8 engine.
While the 501 and 502 model was discontinued in 1958, variations of the model, with the same platform and body, were continued until 1963.

1.1. Background. Autovelo restarting BMW manufacturing. (Autovelo руководство БМВ производство)
Production at the plant, BMW car in Eisenach restarted in late 1945 with pre-war BMW models. However, Eisenach was in the Soviet zone of occupation, and cars not made by BMW AG, but the Soviet production facilities Autovelo. Although not a BMW, these cars bore the BMW logo and was sold as BMW.
Meanwhile, BMW AG restarted manufacture on a much smaller scale, from pots and pans, and eventually moving up to household equipment and bicycles. In the end, with the permission of the U.S. government and financing from banks, in which the BMW was put into receivership, they began production of motorcycles in 1948.
At the end Autovelos continued violation of trademark rights, in Eisenach branch of BMW was dissolved 28 September 1949 and was legally severed as at 11 October. Without any legal arguments to continue to use the name and logo of BMW, Autovelo changed its name to EMV in the eisenacher Motor Werke and changed the blue color in the logo to red.

1.2. Background. Donat. (Донат)
Kurt Donath, technical Director of BMW and General Manager of the Milbertshofen factory, was soliciting manufacturers, including Ford and Simca, to produce their vehicles under license. In particular, Donath was going to produce old products under a license so that he could buy tooling along with the licence.

1.3. Background. Boning. (Обвалки)
While Donath was trying to find a car to build under license, chief engineer Alfred boning designed a prototype for small car economy-class powered by a motorcycle engine. Called the BMW 331, the prototype used a 600 CC motorcycle engine, four-speed transmission, and rear axle. The body was designed by Peter Schimanowski and resembled a BMW 327 in miniature.

1.4. Background. Grewenig
BMW 331 was proposed for production in the office, where it was vetoed sales Director Hans Grewenig. Grewenig, a banker and former Director of the plant "Opel", believed that BMWs small production capacity is best suited for luxury cars with high profit similar to the BMW just before the war. To this end, it deboning and his team to create a car that will be 501.

2. Design and engineering. (Дизайн и проектирование)
In 501 was an entirely new platform with a perimeter frame, double a-arm front suspension with torsion bar springs and a live axle with torsion bar springs at the rear. The steering mechanism was similar to a rack and pinion system except that the rack was semi-circular, not straight.
In 501 is powered by a motor M337, and the development of the BMW M78 used in the pre-war BMW 326.
The four-speed gearbox was not bolted to the engine, but was a separate shaft of the mechanical actuator mounted between the second and third crossbars. When output remote transmission led to a complicated linkage to the column shifter, resulting in vague shifter action, it also improved legroom for the front passengers.
The body was designed at the home of Peter Schimanowski. After seeing the prototype, BMW manual ordering Pininfarina to build an alternative. The Pininfarina prototype was thought to be too similar to his design for the Alfa Romeo 1900 saloon, so BMW stayed with Schimanowskis design. The steel body was far heavier than Schimanowski had calculated it, resulting in the completed car having a dry weight 1.430 kg 3.150 kg. the Characteristics of victims, with a maximum speed of 135 km / h 84 km / h and acceleration to 100 km / h 62 km / h taking 27 seconds, which is favourable compared with the six-cylinder Mercedes-Benz 220.
One innovation was the attention paid to passive safety. The car proved to be a reliable chassis, above average side impact protection, an unusually short steering column with the steering gear set well back from the front of the car, and the fuel tank placed in a carefully protected location above the rear axle to minimize the risk of fire in case of an accident.

3. Reception and production. (Прием и производство)
In 501 was introduced to the public in April 1951 at the Frankfurt motor show, as it is less expensive, ready rival, the Mercedes-Benz 220. In the 501 made an impression on the audience with its strong engineering and its extravagance. The price list of more than fifteen thousand German marks were approximately four times average annual salary in Germany at that time. The public nicknamed the 501 "Barockengel" Baroque angel with reference to the curved, flowing style of the body, which is reminiscent of the Baroque era.
Development issues delayed the start of production until late 1952, and even then BMW still did not have equipment for pressing body panels in operation. First 2.045 four-door saloon bodies were built by Karosserie Baur and were shipped from Baur in Stuttgart to BMWs factory in Munich for Assembly. The thousandth 501 was completed on 1 September 1953.
In the 501 and derivatives built at BMW were chetyrehdverny sedans. The coupe version and convertible were available as custom orders from Baur or autenrieth firm built.
Road test of the 501 in March 1953 on car and motorcycle-Welt reported better than average wind resistance, as well as good ride quality and an effective heating system. The fuel consumption reported is 10.3 l / 100km 27 mpg ‑IMP, 23 mpg ‑US.

4. The development of the BMW 501. (Развитие BMW 501)
In the 501A was released in 1954 as a replacement for the original 501 with similar trim and equipment, but which sold for DM14.180, a price reduction of more than eight hundred Deutsche mark from the original 501. In the 501B was a decontented version that sold for DM500 less than the 501A. As 501A and 501B used a revised M337 engine.
The engine and the model designation was again changed in the spring of 1955. In the 501A and 501 B were replaced by the 501 / 3, with an updated M337 engine. In 501 / 3 submitted with the 501 V8, which showed a detuned version of the 2.6-litre V8 introduced in the 502 the previous year. In 501 / 3 and 501 V8 continued until 1958, when the six-cylinder engine and the 501 model designation were discontinued.

5. BMW 502. (БМВ 502)
Before the construction of the first prototype of the 501, bone calculated the mass of the car as designed, and realized that the six-cylinder engine is barely enough to power a car. He suggested a more powerful engine to power future versions of the car to management, which accepted his offer. Bone started the design and development of a V8 engine similar in construction to the new Oldsmobile rocket V8, with a single camshaft in the collapse of the operating overhead valves in wedge-shaped combustion chambers through pushrods. BMW OHV V8 engine differed from its Detroit contemporaries in the use of aluminum alloy block with cast iron cylinder liners, in its smaller size, initially with a 74 mm 2.9 in bore and 75 mm 3.0 in stroke, giving a displacement of 2.580 157 of the criminal code V. the development of the V8 was completed by Fritz Fiedler, who replaced bone as BMWs chief engineer in 1952.
The V8 engine was introduced at the 1954 Geneva motor show as the engine of the new BMW 502 sedan. Using the same chassis and basically the same body as the 501, the 502 was more luxuriously and, with its light V8 engine producing 100 horsepower 75 kW with one double-barrel carburetor Solex was much faster. Published top speed of 160 km / h 99 mph was much higher than in the first six-cylinder version of the Ponton Mercedes launched the same year. At the moment of its introduction the 502 was reported to Germanium fastest passenger sedan in regular production.
In 502 was voted in Germanys first post-war V8 powered car, but its high price of DM17.800 led to low sales, only 190 were sold in its first year of production.
In 502 different from the 501 additional chrome trim and luxurious interior trim. Fog lights and individual front seats were now included as a standard feature. In 502 mildly restyled in 1955 with a window, with the smell back.
As well as the sedan version, BMW offered Baur built two-door cabriolet and coupé versions of the 502 in 1954 and 1955. 501s and 502s were also converted into ambulances and hearses.

5.1. BMW 502. BMW 2.6 and 2.6 Luxus. (БМВ 2.6 и 2.6 Люксус)
In the 501 and 502 model designations were discontinued in 1958, when the 501 V8 was renamed the BMW 2.6 and the 502 was renamed the 2.6 Luxus. The cars were continued under these model designations until 1961 with two notable changes: power steering became an option in 1959, while front disc brakes were added in 1960.

5.2. BMW 502. BMW 2600 and 2600L. (БМВ 2600 и 2600L)
In 1961, the designation of models was altered to 2600 and 2600L. The engine in the 2600L was tuned to give 110 power 82 kW. Production ended in 1963.

6. BMW 3.2 and 3.2 super. (БМВ 3.2 и 3.2 супер)
Further development of the V8 engine was introduced at the motor-1955 Frankfurt motor show. It was 3.2 in 82 mm bore, giving a capacity 3.168 CC 193.3 CU in. The engine made its debut in four new cars at the show, the 507 two-seat convertible, the 503 coupe, the 505 limousine prototype, and the BMW 3.2, a development of the 502 that did not have the model number and was identified simply its displacement in liters. As used in the 3.2 and the 505, the engine had a compression ratio of 7.2:1, compared to 7.0:1 of the original 2.6 L V8 engine. In this tune, the engine gave 120 HP 89 kW gear ratio was raised from 4.225:1 on a small engine sedans 3.89:1. 3.2 to reduce the fuel consumption a more powerful engine.
In 1957, the 3.2 Super With a 140 engine power of 100 kW, was released. In 3.2 and 3.2 Super were continued under these model designations until 1961 with two notable changes: power steering became an option in 1959, while front disc brakes were added to the 3.2 super in October 1959 and to the 3.2 in 1960.

6.1. BMW 3.2 and 3.2 super. BMW 3200L and 3200S. (БМВ 3200L и 3200S)
In 1961, the 3.2 and 3.2 Super were replaced by the 3200L and 3200S, respectively. In the 3200L had a single carburettor engine that produced 140 horsepower 100 kW, while the 3200S had a twin carburettor engine that produced 160 horsepower 120 kW at 5600 rpm.
The report of the 3.2-litre BMW saloon estimated the 502s consumption of 15 liters / 100 km 19 mpg ‑IMP, 16 mpg ‑US.
Production ended in 1963.

7.1. Other events. BMW 503 and 507. (БМВ 503 и 507)
BMW 503 and 507 were Grand touring cars, the 503 was a four-seat coupe or convertible, and the 507 was a two-seater convertible. Conceived by us importer max Hoffman, designed by German-American designer Albrecht von Hertz, and tram sleepers from Fritz Fiedler, to the 503 and 507 used variations of a chassis specially designed for them, along with reworked twin carburettor versions of the 3.2 engines. They must be at a price about five thousand dollars in the United States and be sold in thousands of Hoffman. Instead, the 503 and 507 were at a price of about ten thousand dollars, and only 412 and 252, respectively, were sold.

7.2. Other events. A prototype of the BMW 505. (Прототип БМВ 505)
At the motor show in Frankfurt in 1955 took place the presentation of the BMW 505, a limousine based on the new 3.2 saloon. In the style of Giovanni Michelotti, the 505 was 5.1 metres in length, with a wheelbase of about 3.1 metres. Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of Germany, tried out the 505. It is reported that on entering the car, Adenauer knocked his hat off. Regardless of the reason, Adenauer continued to use the Mercedes-Benz 300 as his official car to the extent that this type was nicknamed" Adenauer Mercedes”. BMW 505 never went into series production, and were built only two prototypes.

7.3. Other events. BMW 3200 CS
BMW 3200 CS was a coupé built from 1961 to 1965. The building was designed and built by Bertone and shipped to the BMW plant in Munich, where he was installed on the chassis of the 3200S. It was the last option 501 to be manufactured by BMW.

8. Police cars. (Полицейские машины)
During the 1950-ies and 1960-ies, 501 radio patrol cars were widely used as police cars in many police stations in Bavaria, including the Bavarian state police, Munich Stadtpolizei police of Munich. The car with its relatively fast, 145 km / h 90 km / h on the standards of the 1950-ies has been a blessing for the police, as most criminals do not have easy access to fast cars, like the Mercedes-Benz 300 SL or a Porsche. The traffic police on rural roads and motorways was even released V8 cars that were even faster. Police cars also showed Lorenz radio by phone that allows officers to easily communicate with the dispatcher. In Munich the police used seventeen 501 patrol car, which was used for about 10 years and about 130.000 kilometers of service before retirement. The last two police cars were delivered in Amberg in 1965, after the production of 501s over. They were withdrawn from service in 1971 due to problems of rust.
501 patrol car was Central to early police drama 1960s Funkstreife ISAR 12.

9. Heritage. (Наследие)
Commercial, 501 was a success, when compared to a modern six-cylinder Borgward saloons. During the 1950s, the sector is increasingly dominated by "Mercedes-Benz", and 501 volumes have not approached those that were achieved by Stuttgart built competitors. During the 1950-ies, BMW Finance was deemed unstable after losing its plant in Eisenach. Relatively low sales volumes, achieved 501 was one of the various reasons offered by commentators for the financial problems of the company. The situation reached a climax when the "Daimler-Benz" the takeover was threatened, averted in 1959 only with a dramatic rescue Herbert Quandt company.

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